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Wow! African American Small Business Ownership Up 400% in a Year, Survey Reveals

The number of African American small business owners in the United States has increased by a staggering 400% in just a year. This was the finding of a survey from the small business financing company, Guidant Financial.

The State of a Small Business survey interviewed more than 2,600 small business owners and entrepreneurs, both male and female.

African American Small Business Statistics

The survey found that in 2018, 45% of small business owners were minority ethnic groups. This was already a dramatic increase from 2015, when the amount of minority business owners was just 15%. The biggest increase among minority small business owners however has been the huge increase in the number of African American small business owners year over year 400% increase in a year-over-year period between 20017 and 2018.

Following African Americans, Hispanics were the next largest group of minority small business owners representing 14% of the business owners interviewed for the survey. Meanwhile, Asians made up 8% of the business owners surveyed while Native Americans made up 4%.

David Nilssen, CEO of Guidant Financial, shared his enthusiasm over the rise in minority small business ownership in the United States in an announcement announcing the guidelines.

In the release, Nilssen said, “It is exciting to see the growth in minority-owned small businesses, a trend that has steadily been rising since we began our survey in 2015.

He added “Growth amongst all minorities including women is promising in America as small business ownership becomes more favorable and easier to attain. We anticipate and hope to see a continued increase as the impact of tax reform and economic growth shape small business ownership moving forward.” 

The research also showed some of the reasons behind the prolific growth of minority small business ownership. Specifically, 62% of African American small business owners cited their desire to pursue their passion as the reason for starting a business. Another 53% of African American business owners said they were ready to be their own boss, and 30% said they decided to become a small business owner because an “opportunity presented itself.”

Business services have been one of the leading types of businesses African Americans have embarked on in recent years, with 13% of the participants saying they operate a business services venture. Health, fitness and beauty is another popular business niche for African American entrepreneurs, with 9% of small business owners saying they operrated this type of business.

The survey found 66% of African American business owners are looking to growtheir current location.

Hispanic Small Business Owners

When it comes to Hispanic business owners, the second largest minority business ownership group in the United States, Guidant Financials’ Hispanic Business Owners 2018 Small Business Trends research revealed that 51% of Hispanic business owners were motivated into open their own business because they felt ready to be their own boss.

Entering the restaurant and food industry is a popular business venture for the Hispanic community with 11% of Hispanic small business owners operating a business in this sector. Like the African American community of small business owners, business services is another leading sector for Hispanic business owners.

On a scale of ten, with ten being the highest, Hispanics ranked their happiness at running their own business at nine. This is slightly higher than African American business owners, who ranked their happiness for having their own small business in the United States at eight.

 

Job creation smashes expectations, Unemployment rate falls to 49-year low!


The U.S. labor market charged ahead in April.

The economy added 263,000 non-farm payrolls for the month, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported Friday. This topped expectations for 190,000 new positions, according to consensus estimates compiled by Bloomberg. March’s payroll additions were downwardly revised to 189,000, from 196,000 previously.

The unemployment rate fell to 3.6% for the month, the lowest level since December 1969.Consensus economists had anticipated that unemployment would hold at March’s 3.8% rate.

Meanwhile, the labor force participation rate fell slightly from March to 62.8%, but was unchanged from the year prior. The broad U-6 gauge of unemployment – which captures the underemployed as well as those who have ceased looking for jobs and – held at 7.3%, the same level seen in both February and March.

Average hourly earnings rose 0.2% month-over-month and 3.2% year-over-year, the same paces seen in March. Consensus economists had anticipated hourly wages to increase by 0.3% on a monthly basis and 3.3% on an annual basis.

Positions in the manufacturing sector grew by 4,000 in April, reversing a decline of 6,000 seen in March. However, this came in short of the 10,000 new manufacturing positions expected. Manufacturing job creation has been closely watched amid softness in the sector as a whole, with the Institute for Supply Management’s factory gauge falling to a two-year low in April.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics report comes on the heels of mixed employment data from other closely watched labor market indicators. ADP/Moody’s reported earlier this week that private payrolls increased by 275,000 in April, or nearly 100,000 positions more than expected. However, initial unemployment claims, which had been trending lower, recently rebounded, with Thursday’s latest reading showing new jobless claims rose by 230,000 on a seasonally adjusted basis during the last full week of April.

Meanwhile, the economy on the whole has shown signs of trending higher, based on the much stronger-than-expected reading on first-quarter GDP last week. According to that report, the U.S. economy grew at a pace of 3.2% in the first three months of the year, surging ahead of consensus expectations for 2.3% growth.

Fed Watch

Friday’s jobs report comes just two days following the Federal Reserve’s latest monetary policy decision and commentary from Fed Chair Jerome Powell, in which the central bank characterized economic activity as “solid.” The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) decided to keep key interest rates unchanged at a band of between 2.25% and 2.5%, with Powell subsequently telegraphing that the central bank does not see a “strong case” to change interest rates in either direction at this point.

In the statement, the FOMC noted that “job gains have been solid, on average, in recent months, and the unemployment rate has remained low.” Powell also said that he saw no signs of an overheating economy, and that wages have grown at an “appropriate” rate.

Friday’s jobs report looks to have affirmed the Fed’s stance, said Mark Hamrick, Bankrate.com senior economic analyst.

“The Federal Reserve looks at the past couple months of employment reports and certainly feels no urgency to cut rates as many investors have been hoping, or I’d say speculating,” Hamrick said. “As Fed officials’ favorite inflation gauge hasn’t been blinking red, they’ll remain relatively comfortable with leaving rates unchanged for the near-term.”



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Meet Judical Watch's Chris Farrell, Director of Investigations and Research, and get the inside story on the Mueller Report, the Deep State attempts to elect Hillary Clinton and destory President Donald Trump, the evidence of Russia and Ukraine "collusion" with the Clinton Foundation and the Clinton Campaign, and much more.

No person has seen more real evidence of Deep State corruption or can put all the pieces together like Chris Farrell who leads the investigate team that has produced all the documents that you hear Tom Fitton talk about on national TV nearly every night. If you care about the future of our Republic, and "Equal Justice under the Law" for ALL Americans, don't miss this afternoon with Chris Farrell. It will be an event you will never forget!

Make your Reservation NOW as seating is very limited for this event.

 

Twitter is a Fraud - just like Facebook!

 

So for the past five years, the left and their media propagandists have been using Twitter as a “reflection” of the mood of the American people on various issues and now we find out that it is actually a reflection of 10% of the Angry Left’s insane views? Who would of thought that – Right??? This study shows that 80% of Twitter messages are posted by 10% of the twitter users – mostly Democrats. Oh Yea, and remember that HALF of the “people” on FB are bots – not real people!! Gee, no wonder the “media” and the left are WRONG about EVERYTHING!!! What a bunch of fools! The biggest fools are businesses who are “bullied” by the Twitter “mob” and don’t realize they aren’t a mob at all and that “they” don’t reflect your customers AT ALL! Don’t be a fool yourself -get off of Twitter and FB!

Pew: US adult Twitter users tend to be younger, more Democratic; 10% create 80% of tweets

twitter-app-icon-ios

A new report out this morning from Pew Research Center offers insight into the U.S. adult Twitter population. The firm’s research indicates the Twitterverse tends to skew younger and more Democratic than the general public. It also notes that the activity on Twitter is dominated by a small percentage — most users rarely tweet, while the most prolific 10 percent are responsible for 80 percent of tweets from U.S. adults.

Pew says only around 22 percent of American adults today use Twitter, and they are representative of the broader population in some ways, but not in others.

For starters, Twitter’s U.S. adult users tend to be younger.

The study found the median age of Twitter users is 40, compared with the median age of U.S. adults, which is 47. Though less pronounced than the age differences, Twitter users also tend to have higher levels of household income and educational attainment compared with the general population.

Indeed, 42 percent of adult Twitter users in the U.S. have at least a bachelor’s degree, which is 11 percentage points higher than the share of the public with this level of education (31 percent). Likely related to this is a higher income level; 41 percent of Twitter users have a household income above $75,000, which is 9 points higher than the same figure in the general population (32 percent).

A major difference — and a notable one, given yesterday’s sit-downbetween Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey and President Trump — is Pew’s discovery that 36 percent of Twitter U.S. adult users identify with the Democratic Party, versus 30 percent of U.S. adults (the latter, as per a November 2018 survey). Meanwhile, 21 percent of Twitter users identify as Republicans, versus 26 percent of U.S. adults. Political independents make up 29 percent of Twitter users, and a similar 27 percent of the general population.

Despite these differences, there are areas where Twitter users are more like the general U.S. adult population — specifically, in terms of the gender and racial makeup, Pew says.

In addition to the makeup of the adult population on Twitter, Pew also researched the activity on the platform and found that the median user only tweets twice per month.

That means the conversation on Twitter is dominated by extremely active (or, in their parlance, “extremely online“) users. That means a large majority of Twitter’s content is created by a small number — 10 percent of users are responsible for 80 percent of all tweets from U.S. adults on Twitter.

The median user in this top 10 percent creates 138 tweets per month, favorites 70 posts per month, follows 456 accounts and has 387 followers. They tend to be women (65 percent are), and tend to tweet about politics (69 percent say they do). They also more often use automated methods to tweet (25 percent do).

Meanwhile, the median users in the bottom 90 percent creates two tweets per month, favorites one post per month, follows 74 accounts and has 19 followers; 48 percent are women, and 39 percent tweet about politics. Only 13 percent say they tweeted about politics in the last 30 days, compared with 42 percent of the top 10 percent of users. They also are less likely to use automated methods of tweeting, as only 15 percent do.

These differences lead to other ways where how the Twitterverse feels about key issues — like equality or immigration — differs from the general public, with viewpoints that lean more Democratic.

It’s worth noting, too, how the small amount of activity from a large group of Twitter users also speaks to Twitter’s inability to grow its monthly active user base (MAUs).

This week, Twitter reported its first-quarter earnings and noted that its MAUs were 330 million in Q1, down by 6 million users from a year ago. Twitter now prefers to report on its monetizable daily active users — a metric that favors the app’s heavier users.

Pew’s research was conducted November 21, 2018 through December 17, 2018, among 2,791 U.S. adult Twitter users. The full report is available from Pew’s website.

 

 

Judicial Watch: FBI Admits Hillary Clinton Emails Found in Obama White House

APRIL 23, 2019

Also Confirms Over 49,000 Clinton Server Emails Found on Weiner Laptop

(Washington, DC) – Judicial Watch announced today that a senior FBI official admitted, in writing and under oath, that the agency found Clinton email records in the Obama White House, specifically, the Executive Office of the President. The FBI also admitted nearly 49,000 Clinton server emails were reviewed as result of a search warrant for her material on the laptop of Anthony Weiner.

E.W. (Bill) Priestap, assistant director of the FBI Counterintelligence Division, made the disclosure to Judicial Watch as part of court-ordered discovery into the Clinton email issue.

U.S District Court Judge Royce Lamberth ordered Obama administration senior State Department officials, lawyers, and Clinton aides, as well as Priestap, to be deposed or answer writer questions under oath. The court ruled that the Clinton email system was “one of the gravest modern offenses to government transparency.”

Priestap was asked by Judicial Watch to identify representatives of Hillary Clinton, her former staff, and government agencies from which “email repositories were obtained.” Priestap responded with the following non-exhaustive list:

  • Bryan Pagliano
  • Cheryl Mills
  • Executive Office of the President [Emphasis added]
  • Heather Samuelson
  • Jacob Sullivan
  • Justin Cooper
  • United States Department of State
  • United States Secret Service
  • Williams & Connolly LLP

Priestap also testifies that 48,982 emails were reviewed as a result of a warrant for Clinton email account information from the laptop of Anthony Weiner, who had been married to top Clinton aide Huma Abedin.

A complete copy of Priestap’s interrogatory responses is available here. Priestap, is serving as assistant director of the FBI’s counterintelligence division and helped oversee both the Clinton email and the 2016 presidential campaign investigations. Priestap testified in a separate lawsuit that Clinton was the subject of a grand jury investigation related to her BlackBerry email accounts.

“This astonishing confirmation, made under oath by the FBI, shows that the Obama FBI had to go to President Obama’s White House office to find emails that Hillary Clinton tried to destroy or hide from the American people.” said Judicial Watch President Tom Fitton. “No wonder Hillary Clinton has thus far skated – Barack Obama is implicated in her email scheme.”

Priestap was ordered to answer the written questions by United States District Court Judge Royce C. Lamberth when he ruled in January that Judicial Watch’s discovery could begin in Hillary Clinton’s email scandal. This action came in Judicial Watch’s July 2014 FOIA lawsuit for:

Copies of any updates and/or talking points given to Ambassador Rice by the White House or any federal agency concerning, regarding, or related to the September 11, 2012 attack on the U.S. consulate in Benghazi, Libya.

Any and all records or communications concerning, regarding, or relating to talking points or updates on the Benghazi attack given to Ambassador Rice by the White House or any federal agency.

Judicial Watch’s discovery seeks answers to:

  • Whether Clinton intentionally attempted to evade the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) by using a non-government email system;
  • whether the State Department’s efforts to settle this case beginning in late 2014 amounted to bad faith; and
  • whether the State Department adequately searched for records responsive to Judicial Watch’s FOIA request.

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Great Crowd on Hand for 10th Anniversary Party!


Paul Revere Encourage Modern TEA Party to Continue the Fight for Liberty!


Members Shared Memories on Favorite and Funny Events over Past 10 Years





PCTEA To Celebrate 10th Anniversary of the Modern TEA Party, Monday April 15th, with 400 Other Groups Around the Nation

Mogadore, OH: The Portage County TEA Party (PCTEA) announced today that they will be holding a Celebration of the 10th Anniversary of the start of the modern TEA Party Movement on Monday, April 15th at 7:00 PM at Maplewood Career Center at 7075 State Route 88, Ravenna, OH 44266.  The PCTEA will join 400 other groups around the United States who have been holding rallies and celebrations this weekend coordinated by the national TEA Party Patriots organization. The celebration is open to the public and the media and will include a look back at past events and achievements of the Portage County TEA Party.

The original TEA Party movement started on December 16, 1773 when a band of colonists dumped a load of tea into Boston Harbor in a protest against a tax on tea by the British government they considered unfair. The origins of the modern TEA Party Movement also traces its source to a protest against increased taxation. On February 19, 2009, a stock trader named Rick Santelli went into a rant on CNBC TV, from the floor of the Chicago Board of Trade, calling for a new TEA Party protests against then President Obama's trillion dollar stimulus plan. His call resonated with American citizens and several weeks later, on tax day, April 15, 2009, protests were organized in 350 American cities and were attended by more than one million people protesting President Obama's plans not only for the stimulus but for cap and tax and Obamacare which were also being proposed.

Since 2009, the modern TEA Party Movement grew to be a major force in US Politics at the federal, state and local levels, pushing the Republican Party to pass more conservative legislation and eventually leading to the election of President Donald J. Trump in 2016. Below is a list of achievements over the past 10 years that were a result, in great part, to the political advocacy and public education provided by TEA Party Groups:


• 2010 Elected 63 New U.S. House Members to Stop the Obama Leftist Agenda
• 2014 Elected 9 New “Republicans” and took back the US Senate
• 2016 Took the White House by electing President Trump
• 2017 Defeated the IRS after they Targeted the TEA Party in 2012 Election
• Stopped the full implementation of Obamacare and ended the Individual Mandate
• Stopped Gang of 8 Amnesty
• Exposed Illegal Immigration for the threat that it is to America
• Cut taxes for all Americans after badgering "Republican" for nearly eight years
• Cut business regulations
• Defended Religious Freedom
• Defended our Second Amendment Rights
• Saved Fracking and made America an Energy Powerhouse
• Stopped Cap & Tax
• Forced John Boehner out of Office
• Elected Warren Davidson to replace Boehner

People Elected by the TEA Party are now in Key Government Positions:

• Mike Pence is VP

• Mick Mulvaney - Budget Director/Chief of Staff

• Mike Pompeo is Secretary of State

• Jim Jordon Helped to Found the Freedom Caucus

While the original meaning of the acronym "TEA" stood for Taxed Enough Already, after learning that the problems in our nation were much worse than just over-taxation and the size of government, many groups, like the Portage County TEA Party, started defining the "TEA" as Totally Engaged Americans" in order to reflect a broader approach to citizen involvement in self-governance as required by the US Constitution. Both political parties and the media demonized the TEA Party from the moment it appeared on the American political scene falsely claiming at various times that the movement was "racist", "radical", "a terrorist group", "a threat to our form of government" and worse, none of which has ever been true. In the most egregious attack on the Movement, the Obama Administration used the IRS to attack the TEA Party groups, with support by "Establishment Republicans", to make sure that President Obama would win re-election in 2012 which he did. The TEA Party fought back and in 2017 and 2018 won two law suits and $3.4 million in damages along with admission of the IRS that they had wrongly targeted the groups.

The reality is that the modern TEA Party Movement is a truly "grassroots" Movement in a political world of "astroturf" - despite efforts by Republican operatives to control it's actions in its formative years. The TEA Party Movement has no central national controlling body, is generally hostile to both political parties and the special interests the use them against the best interests of the people, and consists wholly of independent local groups of patriotic citizens that coordinate activities at a state and national level on a voluntary basis. Unlike all other "special interest groups" the TEA Party Movement is unique in two ways. First, nearly all other political groups focus on one issue while the TEA Party is involved in any issue that relates to individual Freedom and Liberty - both fiscally and socially. Second, the group has never fought to pass legislation that is specifically intended to benefit it's efforts or members - fighting instead for policies that benefit all Americans. 

Despite claims that the TEA Party Movement has been diminished over the years, in fact the Movement has remained very active and has grown more politically effective with experience. Nothing proves that point better than the election of Donald J. Trump in 2016 who never could have been elected with out the actions of the TEA Party both in the years before his run and during that election year. What it is hard for the media and political consultants to understand is that the TEA Party was never intended to be "a standing army" as a political force, but like our forefathers it is a political militia. Member of the TEA Party Movement have priorities like families and jobs and church and the betterment of their community and only participate in political activity when it is necessary in order to live up to our duty as citizens in a Constitutional Representative Republic. Today these citizens are most concerned about restoring equal justice under the law; reforming the corrupt political and electoral systems; restoring actual representative governance at all levels; reducing the public debt; and defending our Constitution and free market capitalism, which has not only been the key to our success but has literally raised billions of people out of abject poverty across the world in the past 150 years, against the threats by the communist left in our nation and abroad.

#30#

The next Portage County TEA Party meeting will be on Monday, April 15, 2019 at 7:00 PM at Maplewood Career Center when we will celebrate the 10th Anniversary of the start of the modern TEA Party Movement! The public is welcome and all attendees will receive a FREE commemorative bumper sticker.  We are asking everyone who supports the TEA Party to fly their Gadsden Flag on the weekend of April 13-15 in honor of this historic anniversary and to acknowledge the accomplishments of the TEA Party.



Celebrate the Accomplishments of the TEA Party the Weekend of April 13 -15th by Flying your Gadsden Flag!

 

If you Don't Have A Gadsden Flag . . . Click here to Print YOUR Own!

When Talking to the General Public and they want to know what the TEA Party Movement has done for them, share this information:

If you like your lower taxes - Thank a TEA Party Member!
(The TEA Party pressured "Republicans" for 8 years to implement YOUR middle class tax cuts)

If you like your lower gas prices - Thank a TEA Party Member!
(The Ohio TEA Party Saved Fracking in the US when the Left was trying to ban it - lowering gas prices and making the U.S. energy independent)

If you like your new job - Thank a TEA Party Member!
(The TEA Party has pushed for less regulation of businesses and tax cuts for small businesses which President Trump implemented)

If you like your Freedom and Liberty - Thank a TEA Party Member!
(The TEA Party has fought for YOUR 1st Amendment, 2nd Amendment, property rights and more at the local, state and federal levels) 

If you like having a President Trump - Thank a TEA Party Member!
(Without the TEA Party paving the way by educating YOU and the general public for 7 years there is no President Donald Trump)

This is a list of just some of the TEA Party accomplishments we are proud of and celebrate:

• Elected 63 New House Members in 2010 to Stop the Obama Leftist Agenda
• Defeated the IRS after Targeting TEA Party in 2012 Election
• Elected 9 “Republicans” and took back the Senate in 2014
• Took the White House by electing President Trump in 2016
• Stopped the full implementation of Obamacare and ended the Individual Mandate
• Got two new Conservative Supreme Court Judges Appointed
• Stopped Gang of 8 Amnesty
• Exposed Illegal Immigration for the threat that it is to America
• Cut taxes
• Cut business regulations
• Defended Religious Freedom
• Defended our Second Amendment Rights
• Saved Fracking and Made America an Energy Powerhouse
• Stopped Cap & Tax
• Forced John Boehner out of Office
• Elected Warren Davidson to replace Boehner
• Defeated Democratic Ohio State Chairman Chris Redfern

People Elected by the TEA Party are now in Key Government Positions:
• Mike Pence is VP
• Mick Mulvaney - Budget Director/Chief of Staff
• Mike Pompeo is Secretary of State
• Jim Jordon Helped to Found the Freedom Caucus
• The Freedom Caucus is Driving Conservative Policy in Congress

 

MUST WATCH: Mark Levin puts an entirely new spin on how corrupt the Socialist/Democrat Party is, and more importantly, has been historically. This should make the chant "Drain the Swap" have a completely new meaning to all of us. WE MUST FIX THIS but it will be very hard to irradiate this cancer within our government and our political parties. Click here or the image to watch:

 

 

The next Portage County TEA Party meeting will be on Monday, April 15, 2019 at 7:00 PM at Maplewood Career Center when we will celebrate the 10th Anniversary of the start of the modern TEA Party Movement!  The public is welcome and all attendees will receive a FREE commemorative bumper sticker.  We are asking everyone who supports the TEA Party to fly their Gadsden Flag on the weekend of April 13-15 in honor of this historic anniversary and to acknowledge the accomplishments of the TEA Party.

 

The next Portage County TEA Party meeting will be on Monday, April 15, 2019 at 7:00 PM at Maplewood Career Center when we will celebrate the 10th Anniversary of the start of the modern TEA Party Movement!  The public is welcome and all attendees will receive a FREE commemorative bumper sticker.  We are asking everyone who supports the TEA Party to fly their Gadsden Flag on the weekend of April 13-15 in honor of this historic anniversary and to acknowledge the accomplishments of the TEA Party.


==============================================================

Close the Border NOW!!!



Over 100,000 illegal immigrants are crashing the US - Mexico Border THIS MONTH and gaining entry into the United State with the full support of the Leftist "Socialist Democrat Party" that wants the votes of Illegal Immigrants who will be dependent on American Tax dollars for decades to come and "Establishment Republicans" who want to make sure that wages for American workers are kept low for their corporate donors on K-Street and the US Chamber of Commerce. The President is threatening to close the border and we in the Portage County TEA Party support this action to defend US and American sovereignty. 




Proof for those who still insist on believing the lies:

And it’s also possible that the Mueller disappointment drove loyal viewers away in much the same way that people avoid looking at their 401(k)s when the stock market is down. Maddow, who has consistently vied for the first or second top-rated cable news program, was sixth on Monday evening, down almost 500,000 total viewers from the previous Monday, as was MSNBC’s second top-rated program in primetime, The Last Word With Lawrence O’Donnell.

 



Statement from the Press Secretary
 

Today, President Donald J. Trump signed an Executive Order titled “Coordinating National Resilience to Electromagnetic Pulses.”  This Executive Order advances increased resilience to Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) events by directing better data gathering, testing, and private-sector coordination to implement protective measures.  The Executive Order also instructs departments and agencies to coordinate and streamline these efforts, while fostering an environment, through strong Administration leadership, that promotes private-sector innovation to strengthen our critical infrastructure.

President Trump will always do what it takes to keep Americans safe.  Today’s Executive Order – the first ever to establish a comprehensive policy to improve resilience to EMPs – is one more example of how the Administration is keeping its promise to always be vigilant against present dangers and future threats.

 

Office of the Press Secretary

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
March 26, 2019

EXECUTIVE ORDER

- - - - - - -

COORDINATING NATIONAL RESILIENCE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES 


     By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

    Section 1.  Purpose.  An electromagnetic pulse (EMP) has the potential to disrupt, degrade, and damage technology and critical infrastructure systems.  Human-made or naturally occurring EMPs can affect large geographic areas, disrupting elements critical to the Nation's security and economic prosperity, and could adversely affect global commerce and stability.  The Federal Government must foster sustainable, efficient, and cost-effective approaches to improving the Nation's resilience to the effects of EMPs.

    Sec. 2.  Definitions.  As used in this order:

    (a)  "Critical infrastructure" means systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters.

    (b)  "Electromagnetic pulse" is a burst of electromagnetic energy.  EMPs have the potential to negatively affect technology systems on Earth and in space.  A high-altitude EMP (HEMP) is a type of human-made EMP that occurs when a nuclear device is detonated at approximately 40 kilometers or more above the surface of Earth.  A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) is a type of natural EMP driven by a temporary disturbance of Earth's magnetic field resulting from interactions with solar eruptions.  Both HEMPs and GMDs can affect large geographic areas.

    (c)  "National Critical Functions" means the functions of government and the private sector so vital to the United States that their disruption, corruption, or dysfunction would have a debilitating effect on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination thereof.

    (d)  "National Essential Functions" means the overarching responsibilities of the Federal Government to lead and sustain the Nation before, during, and in the aftermath of a catastrophic emergency, such as an EMP that adversely affects the performance of Government.

    (e)  "Prepare" and "preparedness" mean the actions taken to plan, organize, equip, train, and exercise to build and sustain the capabilities necessary to prevent, protect against, mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from those threats that pose the greatest risk to the security of the Nation.  These terms include the prediction and notification of impending EMPs.
    (f)  A "Sector-Specific Agency" (SSA) is the Federal department or agency that is responsible for providing institutional knowledge and specialized expertise as well as leading, facilitating, or supporting the security and resilience programs and associated activities of its designated critical infrastructure sector in the all-hazards environment.  The SSAs are those identified in Presidential Policy Directive 21 of February 12, 2013 (Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience).

    Sec. 3.  Policy.  (a)  It is the policy of the United States to prepare for the effects of EMPs through targeted approaches that coordinate whole-of-government activities and encourage private-sector engagement.  The Federal Government must provide warning of an impending EMP; protect against, respond to, and recover from the effects of an EMP through public and private engagement, planning, and investment; and prevent adversarial events through deterrence, defense, and nuclear nonproliferation efforts.  To achieve these goals, the Federal Government shall engage in risk-informed planning, prioritize research and development (R&D) to address the needs of critical infrastructure stakeholders, and, for adversarial threats, consult Intelligence Community assessments.

    (b)  To implement the actions directed in this order, the Federal Government shall promote collaboration and facilitate information sharing, including the sharing of threat and vulnerability assessments, among executive departments and agencies (agencies), the owners and operators of critical infrastructure, and other relevant stakeholders, as appropriate.  The Federal Government shall also provide incentives, as appropriate, to private-sector partners to encourage innovation that strengthens critical infrastructure against the effects of EMPs through the development and implementation of best practices, regulations, and appropriate guidance.

    Sec. 4.  Coordination.  (a)  The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), through National Security Council staff and in consultation with the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), shall coordinate the development and implementation of executive branch actions to assess, prioritize, and manage the risks of EMPs.  The APNSA shall, on an annual basis, submit a report to the President summarizing progress on the implementation of this order, identifying gaps in capability, and recommending how to address those gaps.

    (b)  To further the Federal R&D necessary to prepare the Nation for the effects of EMPs, the Director of OSTP shall coordinate efforts of agencies through the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC).  The Director of OSTP, through the NSTC, shall annually review and assess the R&D needs of agencies conducting preparedness activities for EMPs, consistent with this order.

    Sec. 5.  Roles and Responsibilities.  (a)  The Secretary of State shall:

      (i)   lead the coordination of diplomatic efforts with United States allies and international partners regarding enhancing resilience to the effects of EMPs; and

      (ii)  in coordination with the Secretary of Defense and the heads of other relevant agencies, strengthen nuclear nonproliferation and deterrence efforts, which would reduce the likelihood of an EMP attack on the United States or its allies and partners by limiting the availability of nuclear devices.

    (b)  The Secretary of Defense shall:

      (i)    in cooperation with the heads of relevant agencies and with United States allies, international partners, and private-sector entities as appropriate, improve and develop the ability to rapidly characterize, attribute, and provide warning of EMPs, including effects on space systems of interest to the United States;

      (ii)   provide timely operational observations, analyses, forecasts, and other products for naturally occurring EMPs to support the mission of the Department of Defense along with United States allies and international partners, including the provision of alerts and warnings for natural EMPs that may affect weapons systems, military operations, or the defense of the United States;

      (iii)  conduct R&D and testing to understand the effects of EMPs on Department of Defense systems and infrastructure, improve capabilities to model and simulate the environments and effects of EMPs, and develop technologies to protect Department of Defense systems and infrastructure from the effects of EMPs to ensure the successful execution of Department of Defense missions;

      (iv)   review and update existing EMP-related standards for Department of Defense systems and infrastructure, as appropriate;

      (v)    share technical expertise and data regarding EMPs and their potential effects with other agencies and with the private sector, as appropriate;

      (vi)   incorporate attacks that include EMPs as a factor in defense planning scenarios; and

      (vii)  defend the Nation from adversarial EMPs originating outside of the United States through defense and deterrence, consistent with the mission and national security policy of the Department of Defense.

    (c)  The Secretary of the Interior shall support the research, development, deployment, and operation of capabilities that enhance understanding of variations of Earth's magnetic field associated with EMPs.

    (d)  The Secretary of Commerce shall:

      (i)   provide timely and accurate operational observations, analyses, forecasts, and other products for natural EMPs, exclusive of the responsibilities of the Secretary of Defense set forth in subsection (b)(ii) of this section; and 

      (ii)  use the capabilities of the Department of Commerce, the private sector, academia, and nongovernmental organizations to continuously improve operational forecasting services and the development of standards for commercial EMP technology.

    (e)  The Secretary of Energy shall conduct early-stage R&D, develop pilot programs, and partner with other agencies and the private sector, as appropriate, to characterize sources of EMPs and their couplings to the electric power grid and its subcomponents, understand associated potential failure modes for the energy sector, and coordinate preparedness and mitigation measures with energy sector partners.

    (f)  The Secretary of Homeland Security shall:

      (i)    provide timely distribution of information on EMPs and credible associated threats to Federal, State, and local governments, critical infrastructure owners and operators, and other stakeholders;

      (ii)   in coordination with the heads of any relevant SSAs, use the results of risk assessments to better understand and enhance resilience to the effects of EMPs across all critical infrastructure sectors, including coordinating the identification of national critical functions and the prioritization of associated critical infrastructure at greatest risk to the effects of EMPs;

      (iii)  coordinate response to and recovery from the effects of EMPs on critical infrastructure, in coordination with the heads of appropriate SSAs;

      (iv)   incorporate events that include EMPs as a factor in preparedness scenarios and exercises;

      (v)    in coordination with the heads of relevant SSAs, conduct R&D to better understand and more effectively model the effects of EMPs on national critical functions and associated critical infrastructure -- excluding Department of Defense systems and infrastructure -- and develop technologies and guidelines to enhance these functions and better protect this infrastructure;

      (vi)   maintain survivable means to provide necessary emergency information to the public during and after EMPs; and

      (vii)  in coordination with the Secretaries of Defense and Energy, and informed by intelligence-based threat assessments, develop quadrennial risk assessments on EMPs, with the first risk assessment delivered within 1 year of the date of this order.

    (g)  The Director of National Intelligence shall:

      (i)   coordinate the collection, analysis, and promulgation, as appropriate, of intelligence-based assessments on adversaries' capabilities to conduct an attack utilizing an EMP and the likelihood of such an attack; and

      (ii)  provide intelligence-based threat assessments to support the heads of relevant SSAs in the development of quadrennial risk assessments on EMPs.

    (h)  The heads of all SSAs, in coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall enhance and facilitate information sharing with private-sector counterparts, as appropriate, to enhance preparedness for the effects of EMPs, to identify and share vulnerabilities, and to work collaboratively to reduce vulnerabilities.

     (i)  The heads of all agencies that support National Essential Functions shall ensure that their all­hazards preparedness planning sufficiently addresses EMPs, including through mitigation, response, and recovery, as directed by national preparedness policy.

    Sec. 6.  Implementation.  (a)  Identifying national critical functions and associated priority critical infrastructure at greatest risk.

      (i)   Within 90 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the heads of SSAs and other agencies as appropriate, shall identify and list the national critical functions and associated priority critical infrastructure systems, networks, and assets, including space-based assets that, if disrupted, could reasonably result in catastrophic national or regional effects on public health or safety, economic security, or national security.  The Secretary of Homeland Security shall update this list as necessary.

      (ii)  Within 1 year of the identification described in subsection (a)(i) of this section, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the heads of other agencies as appropriate, shall, using appropriate government and private-sector standards for EMPs, assess which identified critical infrastructure systems, networks, and assets are most vulnerable to the effects of EMPs.  The Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide this list to the President, through the APNSA.  The Secretary of Homeland Security shall update this list using the results produced pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, and as necessary thereafter.

    (b)  Improving understanding of the effects of EMPs.

      (i)    Within 180 days of the identification described in subsection (a)(ii) of this section, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the heads of SSAs and in consultation with the Director of OSTP and the heads of other appropriate agencies, shall review test data -- identifying any gaps in such data -- regarding the effects of EMPs on critical infrastructure systems, networks, and assets representative of those throughout the Nation.

      (ii)   Within 180 days of identifying the gaps in existing test data, as directed by subsection (b)(i) of this section, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the heads of SSAs and in consultation with the Director of OSTP and the heads of other appropriate agencies, shall use the sector partnership structure identified in the National Infrastructure Protection Plan to develop an integrated cross-sector plan to address the identified gaps.  The heads of agencies identified in the plan shall implement the plan in collaboration with the private sector, as appropriate.

      (iii)  Within 1 year of the date of this order, and as appropriate thereafter, the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the heads of other agencies and the private sector, as appropriate, shall review existing standards for EMPs and develop or update, as necessary, quantitative benchmarks that sufficiently describe the physical characteristics of EMPs, including waveform and intensity, in a form that is useful to and can be shared with owners and operators of critical infrastructure.

      (iv)   Within 4 years of the date of this order, the Secretary of the Interior shall complete a magnetotelluric survey of the contiguous United States to help critical infrastructure owners and operators conduct EMP vulnerability assessments.

    (c)  Evaluating approaches to mitigate the effects of EMPs.

      (i)    Within 1 year of the date of this order, and every 2 years thereafter, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the Secretaries of Defense and Energy, and in consultation with the Director of OSTP, the heads of other appropriate agencies, and private-sector partners as appropriate, shall submit to the President, through the APNSA, a report that analyzes the technology options available to improve the resilience of critical infrastructure to the effects of EMPs.  The Secretaries of Defense, Energy, and Homeland Security shall also identify gaps in available technologies and opportunities for future technological developments to inform R&D activities.

      (ii)   Within 180 days of the completion of the activities directed by subsections (b)(iii) and (c)(i) of this section, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the heads of other agencies and in consultation with the private sector as appropriate, shall develop and implement a pilot test to evaluate available engineering approaches for mitigating the effects of EMPs on the most vulnerable critical infrastructure systems, networks, and assets, as identified in subsection (a)(ii) of this section.

      (iii)  Within 1 year of the date of this order, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the heads of relevant SSAs, and in consultation with appropriate regulatory and utility commissions and other stakeholders, shall identify regulatory and non regulatory mechanisms, including cost recovery measures, that can enhance private-sector engagement to address the effects of EMPs.

    (d)  Strengthening critical infrastructure to withstand the effects of EMPs.

      (i)    Within 90 days of completing the actions directed in subsection (c)(ii) of this section, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the Secretaries of Defense and Energy and in consultation with the heads of other appropriate agencies and with the private sector as appropriate, shall develop a plan to mitigate the effects of EMPs on the vulnerable priority critical infrastructure systems, networks, and assets identified under subsection (a)(ii) of this section.  The plan shall align with and build on actions identified in reports required by Executive Order 13800 of May 11, 2017 (Strengthening the Cybersecurity of Federal Networks and Critical Infrastructure).  The Secretary of Homeland Security shall implement those elements of the plan that are consistent with Department of Homeland Security authorities and resources, and report to the APNSA regarding any additional authorities and resources needed to complete its implementation.  The Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the Secretaries of Defense and Energy, shall update the plan as necessary based on results from the actions directed in subsections (b) and (c) of this section.

      (ii)   Within 180 days of the completion of the actions identified in subsection (c)(i) of this section, the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretaries of Homeland Security and Energy, shall conduct a pilot test to evaluate engineering approaches used to harden a strategic military installation, including infrastructure that is critical to supporting that installation, against the effects of EMPs. 

      (iii)  Within 180 days of completing the pilot test described in subsection (d)(ii) of this section, the Secretary of Defense shall report to the President, through the APNSA, regarding the cost and effectiveness of the evaluated approaches.

    (e)  Improving response to EMPs.

      (i)    Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of Homeland Security, through the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, in coordination with the heads of appropriate SSAs, shall review and update Federal response plans, programs, and procedures to account for the effects of EMPs.

      (ii)   Within 180 days of the completion of actions directed by subsection (e)(i) of this section, agencies that support National Essential Functions shall update operational plans documenting their procedures and responsibilities to prepare for, protect against, and mitigate the effects of EMPs.

      (iii)  Within 180 days of identifying vulnerable priority critical infrastructure systems, networks, and assets as directed by subsection (a)(ii) of this section, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretaries of Defense and Commerce, and the Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, shall provide the Deputy Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism and the Director of OSTP with an assessment of the effects of EMPs on critical communications infrastructure, and recommend changes to operational plans to enhance national response and recovery efforts after an EMP.

    Sec. 7.  General Provisions.  (a)  Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

      (i)   the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or 

      (ii)  the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

    (b)  This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

    (c)  This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.




                        DONALD J. TRUMP



THE WHITE HOUSE,
    March 26, 2019.


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